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Table of contents

Texians gathered in Gonzales were unaware of Fannin's return to Goliad, and most continued to wait. Impatient with the delay, on February 27 Travis ordered Samuel G. Bastian to go to Gonzales "to hurry up reinforcements".

A Mexican patrol attacked, driving off four of the men including Bastian. One man was wounded, and his English curses convinced the occupiers to open the gates. Johnson at the Battle of San Patricio on February The arrival of the Mexican reinforcements prompted Travis to send three men, including Davy Crockett , to find Fannin's force, which he still believed to be en route.

The others had left Gonzales several days earlier.

Mexican soldiers drove a second group across the prairie. On March 4, the day after his reinforcements arrived, Santa Anna proposed an assault on the Alamo. Many of his senior officers recommended that they wait for two pounder cannons anticipated to arrive on March 7. Legend holds that at some point on March 5, Travis gathered his men and explained that an attack was imminent, and that they were greatly outnumbered by the Mexican Army. He supposedly drew a line in the ground and asked those willing to die for the Texian cause to cross and stand alongside him; only one man Moses Rose was said to have declined.

Susannah Dickinson recalled Travis announcing that any men who wished to escape should let it be known and step out of ranks.

Alamo Story: From Early History to Current Conflicts

The last Texian verified to have left the Alamo was James Allen, a courier who carried personal messages from Travis and several of the other men on March 5. At 10 p. As Santa Anna had anticipated, the exhausted Texians soon fell into the first uninterrupted sleep many of them had since the siege began. Santa Anna remained in camp with the reserves.

At a. Cos and his men approached the northwest corner of the Alamo, [96] while Duque led his men from the northwest towards a repaired breach in the Alamo's north wall. The three Texian sentinels stationed outside the walls were killed in their sleep, [] [] allowing Mexican soldiers to approach undetected within musket range of the walls.

In the initial moments of the assault, Mexican troops were at a disadvantage. Their column formation allowed only the front rows of soldiers to fire safely. Although some in the front of the Mexican ranks wavered, soldiers in the rear pushed them on. Travis became one of the first occupiers to die, shot while firing his shotgun into the soldiers below him, though one source says that he drew his sword and stabbed a Mexican officer who had stormed the wall before succumbing to his injury.

As the Texians discharged their previously loaded rifles, however, they found it increasingly difficult to reload while attempting to keep Mexican soldiers from scaling the walls. Mexican soldiers withdrew and regrouped, but their second attack was repulsed. Fifteen minutes into the battle, they attacked a third time. One of the first to scale the foot 3. Amador opened the postern in the north wall, allowing Mexican soldiers to pour into the complex.

This left the south end of the mission unprotected; within minutes Mexican soldiers had climbed the walls and killed the gunners, gaining control of the Alamo's pounder cannon. Last words of Texian defender Almaron Dickinson to his wife Susanna as he prepared to defend the chapel. As previously planned, most of the Texians fell back to the barracks and the chapel. Holes had been carved in the walls to allow the Texians to fire. When the cavalry charged, the Texians took cover and began firing from a ditch. Sesma was forced to send reinforcements, and the Texians were eventually killed.

Sesma reported that this skirmish involved 50 Texians, but Edmondson believes that number was inflated. The occupiers in the cattle pen retreated into the horse corral. After discharging their weapons, the small band of Texians scrambled over the low wall, circled behind the church and raced on foot for the east prairie, which appeared empty.


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Nevertheless, all of the escaping Texians were killed. The last Texian group to remain in the open were Crockett and his men, defending the low wall in front of the church. Unable to reload, they used their rifles as clubs and fought with knives. After a volley of fire and a wave of Mexican bayonets , the few remaining Texians in this group fell back towards the church. Four Mexicans were killed before the flag of Mexico was raised in that location. For the next hour, the Mexican army worked to secure complete control of the Alamo.

Mexican soldiers turned the cannon towards the barracks. Too sick to participate in the battle, Bowie likely died in bed. Eyewitnesses to the battle gave conflicting accounts of his death. Some witnesses maintained that they saw several Mexican soldiers enter Bowie's room, bayonet him, and carry him alive from the room. The last of the Texians to die were the 11 men manning the two pounder cannons in the chapel. Dickinson's crew fired their cannon from the apse into the Mexican soldiers at the door. With no time to reload, the Texians, including Dickinson, Gregorio Esparza and James Bonham , grabbed rifles and fired before being bayoneted to death.

Wounded, he crawled towards the powder magazine but was killed by a musket ball with his torch only inches from the powder. As soldiers approached the sacristy, one of the young sons of occupier Anthony Wolf stood to pull a blanket over his shoulders.


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  5. By a. Mexican generals were unable to stop the bloodlust and appealed to Santa Anna for help. Although the general showed himself, the violence continued and the buglers were finally ordered to sound a retreat. For 15 minutes after that, soldiers continued to fire into dead bodies. According to many accounts of the battle, between five and seven Texians surrendered.

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    Santa Anna reportedly told Captain Fernando Urizza that the battle "was but a small affair". Warnell died several months later of wounds incurred either during the final battle or during his escape as a courier. Mexican soldiers were buried in the local cemetery, Campo Santo. Cos rejected the idea. The Texian bodies were stacked and burned. His brother Francisco, an officer in Santa Anna's army, received permission to give Gregorio a proper burial.

    A simple coffin inscribed with the names Travis, Crockett, and Bowie was filled with ashes from the funeral pyres. The spot was not marked and cannot now be identified. In July a coffin was discovered buried in that location, but according to historian Wallace Chariton, it is unlikely to actually contain the remains of the Alamo occupiers.

    The Alamo Story: From Early History to Current Conflicts

    Fragments of uniforms were found in the coffin, and it is known that the Alamo occupiers did not wear uniforms. In an attempt to convince other slaves in Texas to support the Mexican government over the Texian rebellion, Santa Anna spared Travis' slave, Joe. Dickinson refused the offer, which was not extended to Juana Navarro Alsbury although her son was of similar age.

    They were encouraged to relate the events of the battle, and to inform the remainder of the Texian forces that Santa Anna's army was unbeatable. During the siege, newly elected delegates from across Texas met at the Convention of On March 2, the delegates declared independence , forming the Republic of Texas. Four days later, the delegates at the convention received a dispatch Travis had written March 3 warning of his dire situation. Unaware that the Alamo had fallen, Robert Potter called for the convention to adjourn and march immediately to relieve the Alamo.

    Sam Houston convinced the delegates to remain in Washington-on-the-Brazos to develop a constitution. After being appointed sole commander of all Texian troops, Houston journeyed to Gonzales to take command of the volunteers who were still waiting for Fannin to lead them to the Alamo. Within hours of Houston's arrival on March 11, Andres Barcenas and Anselmo Bergaras arrived with news that the Alamo had fallen and all Texians were slain. They were released hours later when Susannah Dickinson and Joe reached Gonzales and confirmed the report.

    Despite their losses at the Alamo, the Mexican army in Texas still outnumbered the Texian army by almost six to one. The Mexican army was taken by surprise, and the Battle of San Jacinto was essentially over after 18 minutes. During the fighting, many of the Texian soldiers repeatedly cried "Remember the Alamo! And now it remains for him to be generous to the vanquished. Santa Anna's life was spared, and he was forced to order his troops out of Texas, ending Mexican control of the province and bestowing some legitimacy on the new republic. Following the battle, Santa Anna was alternately viewed as a national hero or a pariah.

    Mexican perceptions of the battle often mirrored the prevailing viewpoint. Petite and many other historians believe that some of the stories, such as the execution of Crockett, may have been invented to further discredit Santa Anna.

    History of Texas - Wikipedia

    Focus has centered primarily on the Texian occupiers, with little emphasis given to the role of the Tejano soldiers who served in the Texian army or the actions of the Mexican army. The first English-language histories of the battle were written and published by Texas Ranger and amateur historian John Henry Brown.

    Potter based his work on interviews with many of the Mexican survivors of the battle. According to Todish et al. CNN described it as possibly "the most character-driven of all the movies made on the subject". It is also considered more faithful to the actual events than other movies. A number of songwriters have been inspired by the Battle of the Alamo. The U. Post Office issued two postage stamps in commemoration of Texas Statehood [] and the Battle of Alamo.